Last update : May 2018

You will find here informations about:

  • CPR (Repatriation Centres)
  • bilateral agreements between Italy and “third countries”
  • what happens if your asylum application is refused
  • “assisted voluntary return”.

CPR (Repatriation Centres)

CPR are centres where, according to the definition by the Ministry of Interior, they can detain “foreigners who have arrived in Italy illegally, those who are not requesting international protection or those who refuse to be identified, or asylum seekers considered “dangerous” for the country and also those who don’t have a permit of stay (permesso di soggiorno) and have received the “expulsion” or “rejection” decree (decreto di
espulsione/respingimento) who, once identified, may be deported. According to the law, the duration of stay
is maximum 90 days, or 12 months if you are an asylum seeker.
In July 2017, the Minister of the Interior announced the reopening of 9 repatriation centers (but they have not
yet been reopened). This decision is connected to the signing of new bilateral readmission agreements with
“third countries” such as Sudan, Libya and Nigeria. Besides it, from January 2017, the Ministry of Interior
has encouraged the local Questure to carry out targeted operations to find Nigerian migrants staying in Italy
without regular documents so it is likely that many of them will be detained in the CPR
Currently the opened CPR are located in: Restinco (Brindisi), Bari, Caltanissetta, Ponte Galeria in Rome
(currently for women only), Turin and Potenza.
IMPORTANT! According to the SOPs applying at Hotspots, migrants without regular permit of stay who
have not expressed the intention to seek international protection or who do not intend to apply for
international protection may be transferred from a hotspot to a CPR or be expelled if there are agreements
that provide for it.


Like other EU countries, Italy is signing or renewing agreements with some of the countries of origin
of migrants arriving in Italy. These include memoranda of understanding (expressing a convergence of
interests between the parties, indicating a predefined common line of action), police agreements, framework
agreements, readmission agreements and cooperation treaties.
By entering into these agreements, the contracting countries with Italy undertake to take back migrants
illegally present on Italian territory in exchange for a fee (quotas of visas or money). These agreements are
aimed at managing and controlling the entry of foreigners into Italian territory.
Italy has signed several bilateral agreements, including:

  • Police agreements: India 21/01/2000; Turkey 09/02/2001; Egypt 09/01/2007; Algeria 22/07/2009;
    Gambia 29/07/2010.
  • Memorandum of Understanding: Ghana 08/02/2010; Niger 09/02/2010; Senegal 28/07/2010;
    Nigeria 12/06/2011; Sudan 03/08/2016; Libya 02/02/2017.
  • Framework agreement: Tunisia 09/02/2017

Such treaties and agreements constitute serious violations of human rights as they can expose people
to collective expulsions without an individual assessment on a case-by-case basis.


  • the Commission refuses to recognize international protection and reject your request giving you an expulsion order from Italian territory within 30 days: in this case, contact a lawyer to submit an appeal;

  • the Commission rejects your request for clear lack of of foundation when it considers evident the lack of existence of any requirement for recognition of international protection or the fact that you have presented the request with the sole purpose of delaying or preventing an expulsion: in this case, contact a lawyer to submit an appeal.
    Some asylum seekers whose application has been rejected as “manifestly unfounded” (“per manifesta
    infondatezza”) are involved in an “accelerated procedure” and in such situation they have only half of the
    time available (15 instead of 30 days) to appeal against the denial

IMPORTANT! The new Italian law (February 2017) has made it more difficult to appeal in court and there
will be less chances to meet personally the judge who will decide your case (that is to have an oral hearing).
Besides it, has eliminated the possibility of appeal against the first denial (diniego) by the Court (there will
be only the chance to appeal to the Court of Cassation but it will be very difficult).


If you are in Italy and would like to return to your home country, you must know that the Italian Government has activated a series of assisted repatriation plans through the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). As this programme has been initiated, it is necessary for you to declare your desire to go back to your home country. You can call the free number 800 722071 for more information about the programme.

These programmes can provide concrete help in arranging the trip, pay the costs, in obtaining the necessary documents and give you any support with social and economic reintegration in your home country.

IMPORTANT! You cannot receive assisted voluntary return if you have been issued a deportation order .

IMPORTANT! If you decide to join the programme, you will lose your status and your residence permit in Italy.